Assess the Scene
- If it is safe to help
- Number of patients
- if you will need additional assistance from EMS
- What personal protective devices are readily available to you
Assess the Patient
- Check the patient for responsiveness
- Tap on patient’s shoulder and shout “Are you okay?”
- Look at the patient’s chest and face
- Determine if the patient is breathing normally
- Agonal breathing is NOT normal breathing and needs care
- Call 911 or direct a bystander to call 911 and return
- Caller should give dispatcher patient’s location, details of emergency situation including how many patients are injured and what treatment is occurring
- If you are alone, complete 5 cycles of CPR (about 2 minutes) BEFORE calling for help
- Request AED machine, if available
- Check for pulse (about 10 seconds) in the carotid artery in the neck
- If unable to locate a pulse, do not waste valuable time searching, immediately begin CPR
Begin cycles of 30 compressions (at a rate of 100-120 per minute) and then administer 2 rescue breaths
- Child: At least 1/3 of the child's body (approximately 2")
- On the breastbone (sternum)
Rescuers should assume cardiac arrest has occurred when encountering adults who have collapsed or are found unconscious. Immediately call or have a bystander call 911 and begin CPR.
Use the C-A-B (Compressions-Airway-Breathing) Order
- Begin 30 Compressions
- Open Airway with head tilt–chin lift and check breathing, AT THE SAME TIME
- Give 2 rescue Breaths
For an unconscious child, immediately begin 30 chest compressions, at a rate of 100-120 per minute.
Administer on the breastbone (sternum), using one hand for children under the onset of puberty.
Compressions should be swift, hard and consistent with a depth of at least 1/3 of the child's body (or 2"). Avoid leaning on the patient’s chest between compressions to allow for full chest recoil.
Open the patient’s airway, using the head tilt-chin lift method and AT THE SAME TIME check for breathing (5-10 seconds). Look into the patient’s mouth for an obstruction. If you see an obstruction, remove it immediately.
If the patient is breathing:
- Place the patient in the recovery position
If the patient is not breathing:
- Administer - Rescue breaths
Administer 2 rescue breaths (1 second each).
If the first breath does not make the chest rise:
- Re-tilt the head and try the breath again
After administering 2 rescue breaths
Continue CPR Cycle until:
- AED becomes available
- Patient shows signs of life
- A second rescuer takes over
- EMS arrives and takes over
- You are too tired to continue