Assess

Assess the Scene
  • Determine 
    • If it is safe to help
    • Number of victims
    • if you will need additional assistance from EMS
    • What personal protective devices are readily available to you
Assess the Victim
  • Check the victim for responsiveness
  • Determine victim is an adult. (Has reached the onset of puberty and older.)
  • Tap on victim’s shoulder and shout “Are you okay?”
  • Look at the victim’s chest and face
  • Determine if the victim is breathing normally
    • Agonal breathing is NOT normal breathing and needs care
Activate EMS
  • Call 911 or direct a bystander to call 911 and return
  • Caller should give dispatcher victim’s location, details of emergency situation including how many victims are injured and what treatment is occurring 
  • Request AED machine, if available
Check Pulse
  • Check for pulse (about 10 seconds) in the carotid artery in the neck
  • If unable to locate a pulse, do not waste valuable time searching, immediately begin CPR

CPR Cycle

Perform cycles of 30 compressions (at a rate of 100-120 per minute) and then administer 2 rescue breaths
    Compression depth:
  • Adult: At least 2 inches, but no more than 2.4 inches
     Position: 
  • On the breastbone (sternum)

C-A-B Order

Rescuers should assume cardiac arrest has occurred when encountering adults who have collapsed or are found unconscious. Immediately call or have a bystander call 911 and begin CPR.  

Use the C-A-B (Compressions-Airway-Breathing) Order
  • Begin 30 Compressions
  • Open Airway with head tilt–chin lift and check breathing, AT THE SAME TIME
  • Give 2 rescue Breaths 

Compressions

For an unconscious adult immediately begin 30 chest compressions, at a rate of 100-120 compressions per minute.  Administer to the breastbone (sternum).  Compressions should be swifthard and consistent with a depth of at least 2, but no more than 2.4 inches of the chest.  Avoid leaning on the victim’s chest between compressions to allow for full chest recoil. 


Airway

Open the victim’s airway, using the head tilt-chin lift method and AT THE SAME TIME check for breathing (5-10 seconds).  Look into the victim’s mouth for an obstruction.  If you see an obstruction, remove it immediately. 
    If the victim is breathing OR begins breathing after providing CPR:
  • Place the victim in the recovery position
    If the victim is not breathing:
  • Administer - Rescue breaths

Breathing

Administer 2 rescue breaths (1 second each). 
    If the first breath does not make the chest rise:
  • Re-tilt the head and try the breath again 
    After administering 2 rescue breaths
  • Resume compressions 

Continue CPR Cycle until: 

  • AED becomes available
  • Victim shows signs of life
  • A second rescuer takes over
  • EMS arrives and takes over
  • You are too tired to continue